Ankole cattle are a hardy transboundary breed reared in many of the East, Central and South African countries. It exists in several ecotypes/races such as Bahima, Nsagalla, Ntuku, Inyambo, Indundi, Kigezi and Ankole-Watusi. Ankole cattle are treated with the greatest of care and respect by the pastoralists who raise and breed them and for many, represent a key source of income and sustenance. No part of the cattle is wasted: milk, meat, blood, hide, hooves, horns, even dung; all are used in some way to provide for the owners’ livelihood. Ankole cattle owners have specific phenotypic traits they select for to meet their cultural, social, and economic needs, with horn length and shape and lush, dark red coat colour being of high importance. Due to changing socio-economic needs however, breeding objectives targeting greater milk and meat production appear to be edging out culturally relevant traits.